Category Archives: 5702w

Learning To Thrive In Twine

As some of you may have read in an earlier post ‘Learning To Share Your Work’, after completing my honours thesis last year on the evolution of accessibility of the book I had great difficulty with figuring out how best to publish it. In the end I created a PDF file as well as publishing a copy in Notational Velocity. However, I had always wanted to complete a Twine game representation of it somehow. I will happily admit that I had no idea of what that would look like at the time but I feel as though I have created something that represents the experience I went through that inspired my honours thesis in the first place.

It was thanks again to Dr Graham that I was given the opportunity to make this game for his Digital History class as my final assignment. The game is titled ‘Learning To Thrive’ and in it you are a disabled university student who is trying to find the right path that will allow you to successfully get through your degree. Going into it I had these wild and crazy thoughts going through my head that I would somehow allow the player to choose what type of disability they possessed and from there they could have different paths based on what disability they chose.

Of course just as I always do I overestimated how much time I would have in the semester to allocate towards putting this together. Therefore, I decided to shorten it and base the game on a student with a neuromuscular disorder using my experiences to help. While this game does not relate to the information in my thesis an individual who has experience with both can connect the two between discussions relating to the material book in both.

When first beginning this project it was the first time I had ever used Twine to a serious degree. I had learned about it from Dr Graham in years past but had never really used it to accomplish anything major such as this. With that in mind I knew that I would have to keep it simple, especially considering I did not know really (although I did do some research in the last couple days) how to change the background or make any special effects. The only real thing that I knew how to do was connect from one passage to another using double square brackets, [[like this]]. In the end though I decided to keep it simple as it was what I thought to be a good representation of what university should be like to the student, a simple experience.

For the most part I did not have too much trouble but when I was cleaning it up I changed the titles of a few of the passages which created new empty unneeded passages by accident. You can find out all about my other experiences while making it in my notes below. Overall I believe this experience was a great way to wrap up a semester full of lessons on digital programming that can and will make my academic life easier in the coming future. I am as always learning to thrive.

Learning To Thrive Twine Game


- Final project is a Twine game based on my post-secondary career as a disabled student

- it will have different options of accommodations to suit your needs as a disabled student but only one leads to a healthy and successful completion of a degree

- Different reasons behind each decision and they will be explained in the game itself



- Explains what the game is and how it works.

- Contains two links:

- Neuromuscular Disorder

- Begin

Neuromuscular Disorder

- The purpose of this box is to explain to the player what a neuromuscular disorder is and how it will impact their post-secondary career

- It does not have any options within it other than to return to the introduction box


- Contains two links

- Male

- Female

Male & Female

- The purpose of both these boxes is to establish in the mind of the player that gender is not important when it comes to your overall health as a disabled student

- Both of these boxes only contain one link

- Disability


- Point of this box is to reestablish in the mind of the player how important it is to make all of their decisions with their health as their number one concern

- Accomplishes this by using language like ‘naively’ to point out that you are making some decisions without any information

- Contains one link

- Health


- Purpose of this link is to explain to the player how having a neuromuscular disorder impacts their health and therefore every decision they make in the game will affect how their body is feeling physically compared to the average person

- Contains one link

- Post-Secondary Career

Post-Secondary Career

- Purpose of this box is twofold:

1: Explain how when graduating from high school you are fully confident in your ability as a student academically but you are concerned about not having an Educational Assistant with you in class all the time

2: How because of this you are forced to make more decisions about your education strategy such as how will you take notes

- Contains two links

- EA (Educational Assistant)

- Notes


- Purpose of this box is just to explain to any players what an EA is if they don’t know already

- Contains only one link

- Post-Secondary Career


- Only purpose of this link is to establish in the mind of the player that despite the fact that you are a disabled student you want to experience everything when it comes to the world of post-secondary studies

- So you don’t want to use your disability as a way of getting through your post-secondary career

- Contains one link

- The Easy Way Out

The Easy Way Out

- Purpose of this link is to show how you don’t think you are any different from other student despite the fact that you have a neuromuscular disorder

- Demonstrates how you realize that this is not the case thanks to your experiences in the library and being unable to reach the available knowledge that it provides.

- You grasp that accommodations is not necessarily a bad thing because the obstacles in the library were solved by Transcription Services

- Therefore in your mind your disability is not any reason to receive any special form of in class accommodation

- Contains one link

- Transcription Services

Transcription Services

- Explains what transcription services is and how the Transcription Services office in the library takes any physical book off of the shelf and transforms it into a format that suits your needs best

- Leaves you with  one option

- to return to The Easy Way Out


- This box is where the game truly has its beginnings as you are presented with a number of different possible paths to take in terms of in class accommodations

- These in class accommodations relate to what format of textbook you would like to read and how you would like to take your notes in class

- Each one will lead you to different obstacles and have different affects on your health

- Your options are as follows

- Paper format textbook and take your own notes

- Audiobook textbook and take your own notes

- PDF textbook and take your own notes

- Paper format textbook and a volunteer note taker

- audiobook textbook and volunteer notetaker

- PDF and volunteer note taker

- You Don’t Need Help

Paper Format Textbook and Take Your Own Notes

- This window begins by explaining a situation that you find yourself in during class when choosing this form of accommodation

- The situation is explained as not being able to keep up in class because you can’t access your paper form textbook while your laptop is on your tray

- It leads you with only one option

- Continue Paper Format Textbook and Take Your Own Notes

Continue Paper Format Textbook and Take Your Own Notes

- It explains how you try to compensate for the issue you had in class by doing extra reading at home

- It then states that you get physically tired from this activity very quickly and presents you with two options

- These options are as follows

- Keep Reading

- Put the Textbook Away

Keep Reading

- Discusses how you are beginning to feel the impact on your health and your studies

- leaves you with two options

- Accommodations

- open another textbook

Put the Textbook Away

- In this link you are forced to think about your options

- States that you are stressed from the rising amount of reading on your plate from other classes but realize that you are tired

- So you are presented with two options

- Go To Bed

- Open Another Textbook

Go To Bed

- This link explains how going to bed is the right choice to make for your health and your studies as continuing your readings in this fashion will catch up with you

- There is only one link to choose in this link and it is

- Accommodations

Open Another Textbook

- This link is basically about how by making this decision you think that your academics will benefit most

- In the end though you know that you are just denying the inevitable and you feel yourself getting sick which is your worst fear

- This screen contains one choice and it is

- Getting Sick

Getting Sick from continuing with paper format textbooks and taking your own notes

- Point of this window is to show the player how getting sick is really the worst possible outcome as it is bad for your health and your academics

- Leaves you with two options

- Accommodations

- Continue On With Paper Format Textbooks and Taking Your Own Notes

Continue On With Paper Format Textbooks and Taking Your Own Notes

- Purpose of this window is to demonstrate that making this choice is absolutely the worst possible thing you can do

- Continuing on this path after a couple months and you will find yourself unable to continue on with your studies

Audiobook & Take Your Own Notes

- Point of this window is to demonstrate how while audiobooks do help you keep up with readings, they are not so helpful when it comes to referring back to a specific point once you have passed it.

- Also points out that after a while you realize that you quickly get too tired from taking your own notes to keep up with a three hour lecture

- Leaves you with two choices

- Continue with Audiobook & Take Your Own Notes

- Accommodations

Continue with Audiobook & Take Your Own Notes

- Purpose is to demonstrate how great this choice is for keeping up with readings but how ultimately it is bad for your academic standing and health

- Also makes it difficult for you to cite your sources when writing your papers as you cannot refer to specific pages

- Leaves you with one choice

- Getting sick from continuing with audiobooks & taking your own notes

Getting sick from continuing with audiobooks & taking your own notes

- Point of this window is to show the player how getting sick is really the worst possible outcome as it is bad for your health and your academics

- Leaves you with two possible choices

- Trying Audiobooks & Taking Your Own Notes One Final Time

- Accommodations

Trying Audiobooks & Taking Your Own Notes One Final Time

- Point of this window is that despite being good for keeping up with your readings, continuing to try out audiobooks and taking your own notes is a bad choice for both your health and academics

- States that you will ultimately discover that you are unable to continue with your studies

PDFs and Taking Your Own Notes

- Explains why you realize that this is quite possibly the best format for your needs when you first start using PDFs for textbooks and research books

- Explains how you find the note taking to be tiresome but this may be the only down side

- Warns you to be wary of your decisions in the coming future

- Leaves you with two options

- Ebook

- How You React


- Simply explains what an ebook is

- Leaves you with one option

- PDF and take your own notes

How You React

- Points out how that taking your own notes is becoming too strenuous to continue as you are finding that you don’t have the energy remaining to complete additional work, including readings

- Presents two options

- continue with pdfs and taking your own notes

- accommodations

Continue with pdfs and taking your own notes

- purpose of this window is to demonstrate to the player how pdfs are affecting your outlook on school as a whole including class and homework

- Leaves you with two options to choose from

- get some sleep

- try to finish your work

Get some Sleep

- Although it feels like the wrong choice at first, in the end  you know it is the right one because you know that you will have more energy for work after a good night sleep

- However this is really only a part time solution as after a couple weeks you find yourself in the same situation

- Leaves you with two options

- give PDFs and taking your own notes one last try

- Accommodations

Give PDFs and taking your own notes another try

- Explains why this decision is not good you

- Leaves you with one choice

- getting sick from the path you have chosen

Getting Sick from the path you have chosen

- Point of this window is to show the player how getting sick is really the worst possible outcome as it is bad for your health and your academics

- Leaves you with two options

- Give PDFs and taking your own notes one last try

- Accommodations

Give PDFs and taking your own notes one last try

- Point of this window is that despite being good for keeping up with your readings, continuing to try out audiobooks and taking your own notes is a bad choice for both your health and academics

- States that you will ultimately discover that you are unable to continue with your studies

Try to finish your work

- Point of this window is to show how great it feels to be on the same footing in the classroom and the library but you are at a crossroad because of your energy level.

- Leaves you with two options

- give PDFs and taking your own notes another try

- Accommodations

Paper Format Textbook & Volunteer Notetaker

- explains your reasoning behind making this choice

- potential problems that this decision may have such as maintaining energy

- leaves you with two options

- Accommodations

- Continue with paper format textbook & volunteer notetaker

Continue with paper format textbook & volunteer notetaker

- Explains how you chose this path because you enjoy having actual books in front of you

- Discusses issues such as energy and accessibility more in-depth

- leaves you with two options

- Accommodations

- asking for help getting books and asking for people to help you read

asking for help getting books and asking for people to help you read

- Window demonstrates why this idea and solutions appears to be the right one but in the end is not

- Leaves you with two options

- Fool Yourself

- Accommodations

Fool Yourself

- explains how you are fooling yourself by thinking that you are confident and open enough to ask strangers for help on a regular basis

- Also explains how this can be detrimental to your health and work load

- Leaves you with two options

- Getting sick from fooling yourself

- Accommodations

Getting sick from fooling yourself

- Point of this window is to show the player how getting sick is really the worst possible outcome as it is bad for your health and your academics

- Leaves you with two options

- Give paper format textbooks and volunteer note takers one last try

- Accommodations

Give paper format textbooks and volunteer note takers

- Point of this window is that despite being good for keeping up with your readings, continuing to try out Give paper format textbooks and volunteer note takers is a bad choice for both your health and academics

- States that you will ultimately discover that you are unable to continue with your studies

You Don’t Need Help

- Explains the positives and negatives about not accepting help (mainly arguing that there is more negative)

- What the repercussions could be if they were ignored

- Leaves you with two options

- continue to deny needing help

- Accommodations

Continue to deny needing help

- Explains how and why this is a detrimental mistake to your health as well as your academic studies

- Ultimately explains that if you do follow this path you will cause yourself too much harm to continue on in your academic endeavours

Audiobook & volunteer note taker

- Explains the benefits and negatives of having an audiobook and volunteer note taker

- Leaves you with two options

- continue with audiobooks & volunteer note takers

- accommodations

Continue with audiobooks & volunteer notetakers

- this section explains how as you continue down this path you begin to understand more and more that the audiobook is more useful for how it allows you to keep up with your readings in a relaxed way

- Explains the positives and negatives of continuing on with volunteer note takers

- Leaves you with two options

- try to learn how to cite your sources more efficiently with audiobooks

- accommodations

try to learn how to cite your sources more efficiently with audiobooks

- Express the difficulties between reading books through audio format and writing proper citations

- How as much as you try there really is no good connection

- Leaves you with two options

- Insist on continuing on with audiobooks and volunteer note takers

- Accommodations

Insist on continuing on with audiobooks and volunteer note takers

- points to why you would want to continue in this direction

- Explains why you think that this is not the right choice and why it does work

- Leaves you with two options

- Accommodations

- take the risk and trying audiobooks and volunteer note takers one last time

Take the risk and trying audiobooks and volunteer note takers one last time

- Explain why this is such a risk

- leaves you with only one option

- getting sick from audiobooks and volunteer note takers

getting sick from audiobooks and volunteer note takers

- Point of this window is to show the player how getting sick is really the worst possible outcome as it is bad for your health and your academics

- Leaves you with two possible choices

- Give Audiobooks & Volunteer Note Takers

- Accommodations

Give audiobooks & volunteer note takers one last try

- Give audiobooks and volunteer note takers one last try

- Point of this window is that despite being good for keeping up with your readings, continuing to try out audiobooks and having volunteer note takers is a bad choice for both your health and academics

- It does point out though that you begin to think that perhaps it was just the audiobooks that didn’t work as you found that being able to fully listen when attending your classes was dramatically improving your studies as well as your health

- States that you will ultimately discover that you are unable to continue with your studies

PDF & Volunteer Note Takers

- Explains how and why you feel that this is the perfect combination of all possible accommodations being offered to you

- Also explains that you are actually even able to consider some extra curricular activities thanks to the energy that these two options a leaving you with

- Leaves you with one necessary and one unnecessary options

- PDF/ebook (unnecessary)

- extracurricular activities


- Simply explains what an ebook is

- Leaves you with one option

- PDF and take your own notes

Extra-curricular activities

- demonstrates how this choice would lead to being in this situation

- Leaves you with two choices

- take advantage and do some in addition to schoolwork

- continue on education without participating in extracurriculars

continue on education without participating in extracurriculars

- Explains how there are both advantages and disadvantages to this

- More negatives though as your overall university experience becomes limited

- Leaves you with one option

- impact on your future

Impact on your future

- purpose of this is to argue that by focussing solely on your school work

- also that it will be limiting to your potential educational future

Take advantage and do some in addition to schoolwork

- this passage is meant to demonstrate how great it is that PDFs and volunteer note takers have been allowing you the extra time and energy to take on more in your life

- also though is quick to point out how you need to be careful when managing extracurriculars and your education as you can quickly lose control of your health, which will inevitably lead to your grades suffering as a result

- leaves you with two options

- finish your degree with minimal activities

- take on more

take on more

- explains why this is a very fine line to walk or ‘roll’ on

- ultimately though it will lead to a more negative outcome as despite you being able to accomplish more schoolwork thanks to PDFs and volunteer note takers, you become too focussed on the outside world and your grades suffer as a result

- leaves you with two options

- try to fix the problem by taking on less

- continuing to take on more

continuing to take on more

- argues that by following this path you will be at risk of getting sick because of lack of energy from taking on too much

- leaves you with one option

- getting sick from taking on too much

getting sick from taking on too much

- Point of this window is to show the player how getting sick is really the worst possible outcome as it is bad for your health and your academics

- leaves you with two options

- insist on trying to take on as much as possible one last time

- reducing the amount of extracurriculars

insist on trying to take on as much as possible one last time

- describes how over doing it with extracurricular activities spends more energy than the PDFs and volunteer note takers have allowed for

- also states that you will be unable to continue on to complete your education if as you will quickly spiral to a place that you can’t recover from both academically and medically

Reducing the amount of extracurriculars

- points out that by reducing the amount of extracurriculars you find yourself back in a place that that you feel confident in.

- your energy is back to a manageable level and you are still able to keep up with your readings and attend all lectures thanks to the PDFs and volunteer note takers

Finish your degree with minimal activities

- this passage is aimed to demonstrate how you as a disabled student with a neuromuscular disability have finally found a set of accommodations that suits you

- Not only that but you have figured out a way in which you can thrive, maintaining good health, keeping your grades high and participating in extra curricular activities

- congratulations you have successfully found the path to graduation and a potential to further education


- decided to change the name of the game to Learning To Thrive

- made small changes to the introduction to drive home the point of this title

- decided to eliminate a couple passages related to choosing your gender and then telling the player that those passages didn’t matter

- made it a bit more dramatic as I do remember it being very dramatic personally, but i was hesitant to make it that way originally

- decided to change it though because it will also drive home my point better

- Made a few other changes to the body particularly passages that are similar to one another to make them as different as I can

- decided to keep it simple in appearance after reviewing other games as it’s simplicity sort of mirrors the appearance I would like to convey to the player of how university should be simple to thrive in

Learning How To Use Wget and Python Cautiously

Wget is a program that is designed to “retrieve” files from websites and download them onto your computer. This, as I have learned in class from Dr Graham and from the tutorial, is a very powerful tool. One that allows you to do something as simple as download a single paper, or several links. Wget can even mirror an entire website using the proper commands. If you are not careful, as we discussed in class, an individual can even get blacklisted from a website! This is something that I did not know was possible.

What I found to be most difficult though was using Wget alongside Python. In the second part of the tutorial for instance it taught the user multiple tools. First, to download multiple files at once by entering the URLs sequentially into a script in a text editor, I chose TextWrangler. They used an 80 page diary example from the Library and Archives of Canada that looked like this:

urls = '';
for x in range('integer1', 'integer2'):
    urls = '\n' % (x)


As you can see the Python portion of the tutorial was much more complex as it involved more detailed work.

The other things that this tutorial taught us about was how Python could help Wget to retrieve files from websites by getting around barriers in websites such as those that will not allow you to download more than one thing at once. These commands are very useful but again, complex. This is even more complex for someone like me who has limited to no background in coding.

Much of this tutorial was very interesting to someone like me who again, is new to the more complex digital world such as coding. As you will see in my notes below I had to follow the instructions to the T in order to completely understand.

Here they are:

– I checked to see if I had wget installed and I did not so I installed it
– had trouble originally downloading Xcode but managed to
– downloading the package manager was complicated at times due to the number of steps but managed to complete it
– made a new directory in order to download a specific set of files by typing in mkdir wget-activehistory into the terminal as was instructed in the tutorial
– this has allowed me to download certain things from
– wget operates by typing in wget into the command line terminal followed by the option you would like it to complete followed by the URL address like so: wget [option] [url]
– first effort of this turned out favourably as the program retrieved other files off of the URL when I typed in -r as the option
– this turned out to be really complicated as it brought back multiple links off of those links
– In order to stop this the tutorial gave another command to tell wget not to follow the links beyond the last parent directory so in other words to not follow the links beyond your current url
– you can also tell it to follow links up to 5 times its parent if you prefer
– another command was a bit of an odd concept but it successfully did what it was supposed to as it didn’t show any error messages when i entered the -w 10 command which makes the server wait ten seconds before making another request
– i did also try a different amount of time as the tutorial suggested was possible
– wget can also help to mirror a website by being sure to enter a trailing slash on the command line after the url
– first time i did this it didn’t work as i stupidly made a mistake of forgetting this exact thing
– tried using the -m command successfully though to navigate through the mirrored website i had created using wget
– using wget alongside python though was a bit more complicated as it required me to enter more complex commands while using another program, in this case textwrangler
– for example when trying to retrieve a 80 page war diary i had to be VERY careful about entering the proper urls
– for example I missed one ‘ before the url and it did not work
– the tutorial then goes into how sometimes automated downloading requires working around coding barriers
– for example it says that for URLs that may be too complex for someone with a limited background in coding to design a python script for (such as myself) Wget has a built in function called Accept (-A)
– this lets you decide what files you want from a URL
– it uses the thomas jefferson papers as an example by getting you to enter a series of URLs in your textwrangler then write an even more complicated command into the command line
– this a really cool concept of being able to go around barriers and how the tutorial spoke of accessibility more generally made me think of how I think of accessibility
– tutorial then goes into instructing you on what to do if the directory you are in is closed and only allows you to do one image or file at a time
– while this was complex as I had to be careful when entering the URLs into the textwrangler file but i was careful not to make my earlier mistake or another one like it and was able to retrieve the different .jpeg files

Markdown & Pandoc

Every time I try to start a new paper for class it seems as though I am struggling to A: find a subject to write about. B: find sources for that subject. And C: find a program that will be acceptable to share between computers. This is where Markdown and Pandoc come in to play and hopefully I will learn how to use them better in the future.

Markdown and Pandoc are basically programs that provide sustainability to a file. For example, if a file is written in Microsoft Word or Apple’s Pages it will only be able to be read for a certain amount of time because those programs do not cooperate well with others. Or even their own newer versions of themselves for that matter. Markdown is a program that lets you focus on writing in and format later, while the former do not. What Pandoc does is it will allow you to change the formatting of the Markdown file through the command line.

Once you learn how to use these programs they are easy to navigate but as you will see in my notes below, I struggled at times through the Programming Historian tutorial.


- Why use markdown? First, plain text format and sustainable

- Understandable by multiple phones and tablets

- Markdown is more about keeping you focused on writing and then worry about formatting

- Reference links are not footnotes they are just small numbers after the word that you are wanting to link

- Links to file always begin with !


- Geared toward publishing

- More valuable to write in plain text then worry about formatting

- Specifically made for academics

- Advantage of open note taking is to cite the research of others

- There are now peer review journals that accept research for publishing

- Other advantage is research version control you can always revert back to what you had a week ago if you think it is better

- Journal of Open Humanities Data

- Lessons learned in this class are being put in place in all different professions

- With digital tools there is now a chain of links to aid us in finding the original document

- This can sometimes cause issues with revealing private information about certain individuals that was not intended to be shared

- Digital tools can also help us do things like recreate old documents that have been taken apart and separated around the earth and recreate it digitally

Tutorial notes

- Principles of Markdown:

1: Sustainability – it is able to withstand changes in technology so that your research can be read years into the future

2: Preference for human-readable formats: Markdown is simple program that is exactly as it appears whereas .doc files have hidden formatting characters which can change the appearance of your file when simply copying and pasting something onto it

3: Separation of form and content: Writing and formatting at the same time is distracting so Markdown allows you to simply write and worry about formatting at a later time

4: Support for the academic apparatus: handles footnotes, figures, international characters, and bibliographies perfectly well

5: Platform independence: Markdown allows you to save any file in one format say a PDF and then convert it into HTML later on

- having difficulty finding Pandoc after successfully installing it

- figured it out – have to go into the command line then type in cd Documents and then hit enter then type pandoc and I am inside

- do not know yet how to get out of pandoc without closing the command line program completely but i will figure that out later

- Flavour of Markdown used by Pandoc is geared towards academic use

- Empty space is meaningful in Markdown

- It is important to remember not to indent your new paragraphs in plain text files like TextWrangler

- asterisks make letters bold or italic to add more emphasis (one for italic, two for bold, *like this* or **like this**

- to make a footnote you add [^1] after a sentence and it will then link to a website or source


- saved file in one file so it is easy to find

- goal of Markdown is to make things simpler so they (authors of this tutorial) recommend saving everything in one folder for this tutorial


- Italics and Bold are not formatting though but just adding emphasis like I did above

- Command Line is the best way to use Pandoc

- i typed in the command to open the textwrangler file in word and it did

- thankfully pandoc is better at using zotero than other reference managers as i am familiar with its basics already

- successfully edited the footnotes from the sample although i had some difficulty but that was just caused by misplacement of brackets

- changing citation style was difficult as well

- ended up being something i struggled with in the command line tutorial about trying to do multiple things at once

My Maps & Google Earth

One of the most recent tutorials that was completed in Digital History (hist5702w) was on how to use the Google My Maps and Google Earth applications. These applications both utilize Google’s powerful mapping technology to allow you to do a number of different tasks. My Maps allows you to see a map of the world and add personalized features such as your favourite running routes while Google Earth is designed to allow you to see the globe in a three dimensional fashion and also with special features like satellite imagery and three dimensional buildings.

I found this particular tutorial to be really useful and fun! I will use both of these programs in the coming future for different reasons. For example, I have always wanted a way of keeping track of the accessible restaurants and bars in Ottawa that I like most. My Maps is the perfect program to do just that. It will let me see things like the distance between them, and even possible ways to get to and from them. Google Earth is also going to be helpful down the road but for different reasons. For example it will allow me to see what a place looked like at different points in history and compare it to the present. This is a great feature but one that I will need to look into learning how to use properly.

Below you can find my notes taken during the process of completing this tutorial. Take a look and let me know what you think!

My Maps

Tutorial Notes

- logged into My Maps on Google Maps

How My Maps works:

- You can create a new map to map out anything, from your favourite parks to historic places

- When searching for historic places just be sure that you have the correct name as Google may have different information (for instance Berlin or Constantinople Ontario)

- From the toolbar you can do things like pan the map, drop a pin in it, or draw lines and shapes

- You can also style your map by clicking on the style button on the left side of the menu when you are adding new features to the map.

- You can then share your map online or crowdsource it to get input from others to make your map more powerful

- To import a data set from file just click ‘add layer’ -> ‘import data set’

My First Test Map

- My first map is called ‘Accessible Ottawa’ and it is intended to map out different locations in Ottawa that are wheelchair accessible such as, pubs, restaurants, museums, schools, etc

- Added Sir John A’s pub on Elgin St by searching for it in the search bar

- Then as a sample of importing a data set from file I downloaded the sample CSV file that was provided in the tutorial of different locations around the globe

- It then asks you which column that Google should use from the file to find the locations, in this sample i chose column A) Place

- Then it asks you which column you would like google to use as a title for those locations, in this sample i chose column B) Commodity

- The map contains all the locations where the UK fat imports were located around the world during the 1890s

- My Maps allows you to organize the locations uniformly by clicking ‘style’ -> ‘style by data column’ -> ‘commodities’

- The map then shows all the different locations of each commodity by colour and then living them on the left side menu with the amount of locations that the UK imported that particular commodity at that time

- The program does have many other features including in this instance being able to organize the items by place rather than commodity, but it has limitations such as:

- Only being able to import the first 100 rows of a spreadsheet

- Only allows for three data sets in a map so therefore only three hundred features can be handled

Creating Vector Layers:

- Simply put vector layers are just points, lines or polygons used to mark geographic features

- for example points are often used to mark important locations, lines for railways or roads, and polygons for different areas such as a city ward, or a field

- To add a vector layer click on ‘add layer’ and then rename the layer ‘layer 2′ or whatever you prefer

- NOTE: Beside the title of the layer there is a checkbox, when the checkbox is not checked it will not appear in your map

- Base Map: At the bottom of the menu window, there is a line that says ‘base map’. A base map is a map** depicting background reference information such as roads, borders, landforms, etc. on top of which layers containing different types of spatial information can be placed. Google’s Maps allows you to choose from a variety of base maps, depending on the kind of map you want to create.

- A commonly used base map is satellite imagery but that can often be distracting

- You can choose which base map you would like to use by clicking on the arrow to the left of ‘base map’

- When you click on it a submenu appears that lists options such as:

- satellite

- light political

- light and dark landmass

- simple atlas

- mono city

- whitewater

- To add a point on the map or ‘Marker’ you click on the add marker button under the search menu

- When you do so it will appear under ‘Layer 1′

- To add a Line or Shape to the map you need to click the ‘add line or shape’ icon box directly to the right of the Markers symbol – You can add details about these lines and shapes in the same way that you add details about the Markers

- You then connect the dots of the line to create a formation

- This is useful for outlining farmers fields or city boundaries

- I had a bit of trouble with this but managed to make jagged lines and link them but not any perfectly straight

- you can then share your map online with the ‘Share’ feature which lets you share it through any social media such as Facebook or email

- you can also share it by embedding it in your blog or website

- another option that it gives you is to export the map or individual layers so that you can use it in other programs like Google Maps which I managed to do successfully

Google Earth

- Similar to Google Maps Engine Lite but with additional features

- For example, it provides 3-D maps and access to data from numerous third party sources, including collections of historical maps

- Google Maps also doesn’t require you to install anything on your computer while Google Earth does

- You can choose for the application to display any number of different layers of information including:

- Borders

- Roads

- 3D Buildings

- Ocean

- Weather

- Gallery

- Global Awareness

- and more

- It also has the option of displaying historical maps

- For example the world globe from different years in history

KML (Keynote Markup Language) Files

- this is a file format that was developed by google to save and export data

- it can store many different types of GIS data, including vector data

- it also allows you to import maps from other platforms including Google My Maps

- I successfully downloaded the ‘Map of the St. Lawrence Seaway and Power Project’

- You can also add special features to your map to your map in the same way you could in My Maps such as different lines and styles

- You can even go so far as to record a tour of the map which may be useful for presentations

- Successfully added a few different paths and shapes to the map

- you can even go so far as to search for a specific location in the menu bar on the left and ‘fly’ there

- tutorial asked that i ‘fly’ to lake st clair and draw a border around it

- this was accomplished successfully

- next i successfully added this polygon into the map of the st lawrence seaway project

- then i saved this new version of the map as a kml file by right clicking on the seaway and then choosing ‘save place as or email’

Adding Scanned Historical Maps

- Google Earth gives you the power to add historical maps to the globe

- main purpose for uploading a digital map, from a historical perspective, is to place it over top of a Google Earth image in the browser. This is known as an overlay. Performing an overlay allows for useful comparisons of change over time.

- to accomplish this you begin by clicking on the ‘show historical imagery’ button on the top of the toolbar

- then when you choose the images you plan to use, click on the ‘Add Image Overlay’ icon on the top toolbar

- unfortunately i can’t seem to find this button but maybe somebody out there will be able to help figure that out…

Topic Modelling

This week I had the opportunity to lead the class in a discussion about topic modelling. What is that you ask? Well it is basically a group of computer programs, Mallet being the most common (which we were working with), that take a text and try to extract topics from that text. Now, computers obviously do not understand the meanings of the words that are extracted from the text but they are able to find relationships between them by judging the frequency in which they appear. From these relationships words are then placed into baskets by the computer that are given a topic as a title.

Working with Mallet manually through the command line though is a ver strenuous and meticulous process. For this reason Dr Graham suggested that I use a GUI (Graphical User Interface) program that runs on Mallet. This program is much more user friendly for me as it allows me to navigate and create a topic model by clicking rather than typing in code on the command line. The only downside being that the options were then limited to what the program thought was necessary and not what I may have considered necessary. Whereas if I was working with Mallet directly on the command line I could specify the instructions a bit more for my needs.

When completing this tutorial, I had a few different hiccups along the way. First was making a solidified list of stopwords (list of words for the computer to ignore during its analysis) that would help me find more detailed topics. Thanks to the help of Dr Graham I was guided to a list of stopwords that was published by a historian known as Ted Underwood. This list consisted of over 6,000 words including Roman numerals. Once I began using this list the topics that the computer began making topics that were highly accurate when it came to analyzing my thesis. Another hiccup that I came across was figuring out how to analyze multiple files at one time when using the GUI. This was quickly figured out by being shown that instead of selecting the individual files, I simply select the files that they are all in. So if I was wanting to select multiple article sources from research that I had done for instance I would just put them all in one file then select that file in particular. Finally, I had great trouble figuring out how to visualize these models with Excel. For instance graphs can be made that show how different words relate to one another. This in particular is something that I will have to continue to look at as I have yet to completely grasp it.

Below are the notes that I took during the process of completing this tutorial…

What is Topic Modelling?
– topic modelling tools like Mallet look at patterns in the use of words in an attempt to inject local meaning behind vocabulary
– tools like this are transforming the practice of reading into what Matthew Kirschenbaum calls ‘distant reading’
– What is meant by this is that computers and programs such as Google are making scanning millions of books for themes and patterns at the same time possible
– just because you can use these programs though doesn’t mean you should
– If you are trying to look over only one document for instance tools like Volant Tools, that count frequency of words may get the job done just fine
– topic modelling is all about finding topics in mass amounts of texts
– texts can be anything from a blog post to an email to a book
– Topic modelling programs do not know anything about the meaning of the words in a text.
– Instead, they assume that any piece of text is composed (by an author) by selecting words from possible baskets of words where each basket corresponds to a topic. If that is true, then it becomes possible to mathematically
– decompose a text into the probable baskets from whence the words first came.
– The tool goes through this process over and over again until it settles on the most likely distribution of words into baskets, which we call topics.
– Topic Modelling is often referred to synonymously as LDA

– when working on Mallet in the Terminal always remember to add ./ before entering a command
– There are 9 mallet commands that we can learn and sometimes we can even combine these instructions
– after attempting to work with while I am trying to use a different program that is essentially the same concept, however it is a GUI. Unlike Terminal I will not have to meticulously enter each command manually but rather have a much less tiring way of completing the tutorial by clicking on different options
– seeing as I don’t have the sample .txt files provided by Mallet I will use some of the sources from my thesis to complete the tutorial
– First I imported the files that I wanted to analyze
– next i made sure that there was stop words in place (it had already automatically set itself up to remove the default Mallet stop words such as, and, the, of, but, if, etc)
– however i wanted to make sure that the stop words were more comprehensive so that it would find more meaningful themes in the file
– so i googled stop word dictionary and it lead me to (Dr Graham suggested that i use ted underwood’s list of stopwords that contains over 6000 words including roman numerals found here:
– I filled out all the stop words that it had under a new text file in text wrangler but cannot figure out how to activate it instead of the default Mallet stop words as whenever I try to open a stop word file it does not let me open any files inside of the user hollispeirce
– makes me think that perhaps i could solve this problem by saving it outside of these files…
– only file i am able to get into is the dropbox folder
– managed to save it in dropbox but when i went to open it it did not appear so I will continue on with simply using the default mallet list
– the first time i attempted to have it learn 200 topics i asked it to learn 200 topics iterations and print 10 topic with a 0.05 proportion threshold. with 200 different topics
– it spat out 200 lines of random words, majority of which did not relate to the overall theme of the thesis paper but included things like “gz, uv, ku, rr, autumn,” etc
– HOWEVER when i reduced the number of iterations dramatically to a much more reasonable list that is much more accurate and includes words such as “incunabula, book, digital, information, ebook, scroll, history, disabled” but does include a few two letter words like the other so i will try reducing the number of iterations again
– that didn’t appear to do anything
– I attempted to import all the files of my thesis into one importation but could not not figure out how to open it with text wrangler after converting it from a .docx file to a .txt file even though it opened just fine in text editor (i will try opening the .docx file in text wrangler and see if that solves the issue)
– solved this issue by being shown by dr graham that i only highlight the file that the .txt files that are needing to be analyzed are in
– only problem with that was that the file not only contained my thesis .txt files but also contained the settings for Notational Velocity which, as he explained was why i was getting a bunch of random two letter words in my list of topics
– to solve this problem all i need to do is create a new file that only has my thesis inside of it
– so i then did this but it did not create a list of topic words in the topic modelling like it normally did but instead it just repeated where the topics were saved
– when i looked the file up though it had worked as suspected and excluded all the two letter words so now i just need to narrow the topics to be even more specific
– having trouble making a chart with topic model from my thesis so i am going to try using the jesuit relations files

Opening Doors To Massive Amounts of Metadata with OpenRefine

One of this weeks tutorials taught us about how to analyze metadata using a tool called OpenRefine. OpenRefine is a program that is built to clean data that has been accumulated information that is unneeded. There are four major examples of things that it can help with and they are, eliminate duplicate records, separate multiple values in the same field, analyse the distribution of values throughout a data set and finally, group together different representations of the same reality.

From the description it sounds incredibly useful and it will be once I continue to work with it and get used to its ins and outs. However, when first beginning with OpenRefine I had great difficulty just opening it so my first impression was not great. I managed to work out that kink though with Dr Graham as he thankfully helped me figure out that I was not going crazy and that it was not working the way it should have been.

When I began working with it once I had successfully got into the program, I followed the steps but made some kind of mistake so that my numbers did not match those on the tutorial. Despite this though, the program seemed to be altering the numbers in a correct fashion. Everything went well and it has convinced me that it can be useful in future projects.

Below you will find all of my notes kept while completing the tutorial…



- Using OpenRefine can help us with 4 things relating to cleaning data

1. Remove duplicate records

2. Separate multiple values contained in the same field

3.  Analyze the distribution of values throughout a data set

4. Group together different representations of the same reality

- as data gets reused more and more online we need to be sure that it maintains its quality Open Refine helps us with issues like this

- OpenRefine not only allows you to quickly diagnose the accuracy of your data, but also to act upon certain errors in an automated manner.

How OpenRefine Works

- Average spreadsheet programs are really designed to work on one cell, row or column at a time whereas IDTs like OpenRefine are designed to work on much larger amounts of data all at once

- allows users to identify concepts from unstructured texts (this is what is called Name-Entity-Recognition [NER])


- Major problem getting OpenRefine to work as it was downloading successfully on my computer but the only problem was that Google Chrome was blocking it from being active

- once i figured this out i managed to successfully select the document that the tutorial instructed me to work with

- I then followed the instructions and unselected the checkbox marked ‘Quotation marks are used to enclose cells containing column separators’ as PH states that the quotes inside the file have no meaning to the file

- Taking the next step I clicked “Create Project” and it created over 75,800 rows of data

- It then suggests that I can open the persistent link to see the object on the museum website but I can’t see the link…

- Not quite understanding what difference it makes by looking at the data through different facets as it doesn’t seem to make any difference to the data

- was a little confused so i restarted and it came up with fewer rows than the original document, maybe it still remembered the facets that i was working with earlier.

- Solved this problem the next day by clicking on the redo button and they gave me the option of starting from scratch. When I did this all 75,814 rows came back

- moving on to detecting and removing duplicates

- successfully reordered the file numbers from biggest to smallest by clicking sort > numbers > largest/smallest

- also did smallest to biggest but for some reason I could not see button that said make change permanent…

- I then successfully removed duplicates by clicking edit cells > back down

- then turned those cells blank by clicking ‘Facet’ > ‘Customized facets’ > ‘Facet by blank’

- then successfully chose which ones matched that category and eliminated them all by clicking true’, and removing them using the ‘All’ triangle (‘Edit rows’ > ‘Remove all matching rows’)

- I did though get different numbers than they have in the tutorial due to a previous mistake I made somewhere

- next I successfully split the multi-valued cells by clicking the Edit cells’ > ‘Split multi-valued cells options

- again this was successful but I believe my numbers are skewed from theirs as I did not maintain the steps taken yesterday

- can switch between ‘rows’ and ‘records’ view by clicking on the so-labelled links just above the column headers. In the ‘rows view’, each row represents a couple of Record IDs and a single Category, enabling manipulation of each one individually. The ‘records view’ has an entry for each Record ID, which can have different categories on different rows (grouped together in grey or white), but each record is manipulated as a whole

- narrowing down your meta data into different facets allows you to visualize how your information is broken down and it also allows you to see what different types of categories match multiple pieces of data that you may not have imagined

- successfully exported the metadata into a html file using the export tab on the upper right of the screen

Mining and Counting Files

In the most recent tutorial lesson from the Programming Historian ( we learned all about how to mine and count through files using the Bash Command Line. In a dramatic turn of events over the past two weeks I have been gaining more confidence when going through these tutorials. The main reason for this is that I have been moving cautiously in order to ensure that I do not skip over crucial steps (and I have learned that when using the command line EVERY step is crucial).

In addition, I have stuck with it so that certain basic steps, such as navigating through the computer on the command line, has come to feel more and more natural. More importantly though I have taken to writing down every step that I take. This has helped immensely as I have found that it forces me to think outside the box. What is meant by this is that I feel as though I am talking to myself when doing so, which allows me to more easily see where I am making mistakes.

Taking down notes helped me greatly when it came to getting through my last tutorial. This tutorial was all about learning how to instruct the computer to go through specified files and count certain things, such as number of words, or mine through it and tell you how many times certain words or numbers came up. The lesson also included instructions on how to create a subdirectory and how to move your results into that subdirectory. To get a better sense of what is meant by this please take a gander at my notes and let me know if there is anything that I can be doing more efficiently.

Digital History – Research Data with Unix

- the unix shell gives you access to a range of different commands that help you mine and count through research data

- options for counting and mining data though does depend on the amount of metadata or file names given to you

- in order to get the most out of the unix shell it is important to remember to take the time to structure your filing system.

- dowloaded the files to proghist-text successfully and now am about to open in the command line

- Note: CSV files are those in which the units of data (or cells) are separated by commas (comma-separated-values) and TSV files are those in which they are separated by tabs. Both can be read in simple text editors or in spreadsheet programs such as Libre Office Calc or Microsoft Excel.

- to count the contents of a file enter the command: wc -w “name of file” (worked correctly)

- if you want to know the number of lines instead of an actual word count, type wc -1 “name of file”

- in addition if you want to know a character count enter command: wc -m “name of file”


- the most frequent and useful use of the wc command for digital historians is to compare and contrast sizes of a source in digital format.

- wc can also be utilized with other wildcards like * which is an even easier way to compare multiple sources of research data.

- for instance wc -l 2014-01-31_JA_a*.tsv or wc -l “file name”_”file name”*.tsv


- if you wish to get the data put in a new file rather than just appearing in the terminal screen use the >

- for instance wc -l “file name”_”file name”*.tsv > results/”file name”_”file name”_wc.txt

- this will send the results to a newly created file in a subdirectory called results

- As well as counting files, the unix shell can mine through files using the grep command

- For instance you can enter grep “string, or character clusters” (in this case 1999) *.tsv so: grep 1999 *.tsv

- If you add -c to the command it prints how many times the given character cluster or string appears in a given file. In this case grep -c 1999 *.tsv

- Just like earlier you can export this to a brand new file in the results subdirectory in this case though it would look like grep -c 1999 2014-01-31_JA_*.tsv > results/2014-01-31_JA_1999.txt

- It does not need to mine for numbers alone as it can also mine for words

- To do this you simply need to put the word that you are mining for after the flag -c

- So if you were looking for the word “revolution” it would look like this: grep -c revolution 214-01-31_JA_america.tsv 2014-02-02_JA_britain.tsv

- I tried this and did not succeed, BUT i realized that it didn’t work because I didn’t get the file name correct! THIS IS CLEARLY IMPORTANT

- I kept getting the no such file or directory even with the correct file name so i am trying to go back a file, perhaps i am not in the correct directory

- IT WORKED!!! I was just in the wrong directory

- You can “i” flag after the “c” flag to go through the query again and this time have results prints results that are case insensitive, so for example -ci revolution will also pull out results for both “revolution” and “Revolution”. THIS WORKED!

- You can also move these numbers into another file like the other previous example from earlier.

- grep can also create subsets of tabulated data.

- for instance grep -i revolution 2014-01-31_JA_america.tsv 2014-02-02_JA_britain.tsv > 2016-02-12_JA_america_britain_i_revolution.tsv (this worked just fine once i actually included all the information

- Am going to skip the rm step because i am nervous as to what i will erase…

- continuing on though i am adding on the -v on to the command to exclude certain data elements

- you can also transform different files into different platforms using the > flag


Within the Unix shell you can now:

- use the wc command with the flags -w and -l to count the words and lines in a file or a series of files.

- use the redirector and structure > subdirectory/filename to save results into a subdirectory.

- use the grep command to search for instances of a string.

- use with grep the -c flag to count instances of a string, the -i flag to return a case insensitive search for a string, and the -v flag to exclude a string from the results.

- combine these commands and flags to build complex queries in a way that suggests the potential for using the Unix shell to count and mine your research data and research projects.

Outline of Final Project

For my final project for Digital History (#hist5702w) I am building a game on Twine that takes themes from my honours thesis and puts them into a real world situation. The real world situation that I am choosing to work with is my own. So far it is a very basic concept in my head but I am hoping that it will develop into a game that will allow the player to gain a different perspective on how an individual with a physical disability gets through a post-secondary career.

To accomplish this goal I will create different options for the player/student to choose that will affect both the outcomes of their post-secondary career and their health. These options are based on my own experiences that I have gone through here in my career at Carleton University. Different options will include what format of textbook the student uses to whether or not they take notes in class themselves or have a note taker in class.

Again, this game will be created on Twine. At the present moment I have little experience with the program, for instance I know how to do basic things like create new links but I am hoping to work through the story and then perhaps work on background and other more advanced features later. For now though I will just continue on until the actual story is complete.

Recognizing & Solving Problems

Over this semester I have been learning quite a few new things. First, I have learned how to use new digital tools that will, although it may not seem like it now, help me in complete future research more efficiently. Second, how to put my incomplete work online (as discussed in my previous post). Finally though, I have learned that I don’t need to suffer on my own. My mind was blown by this idea. “What?!?! Dr Graham you are saying that we can share our issues with other people and ask for help?” No word of a lie that was a hard concept to wrap my head around.

Therefore, following these along with these lessons, I am moving forward and using them to help solve problems I am having. For example, I am writing down every single thing I do for each tutorial in Notational Velocity, one of the many new tools that I have been turned on to as I slowly gain more knowledge about its usefulness. Also, I am posting all my notes on this blog, below you can see the notes that I took yesterday (February 9, 2016) when I attempted the Command Line Tutorial for a second time.

When doing this tutorial for a second time I was able to complete it successfully despite the couple times that I thought I had done something wrong, I was later assured that I had not done anything wrong. Check them out and let me know if you have any suggestions.

Digital History – Command Line Tutorial Notes 2

- typed in pwd command to orient myself then hit the ls command to get a listing of the files and directories within my current location which is /users/hollispeirce1. These are:

ApplicationsDownloadsMoviesPublicprojects   Desktop   Dropbox      Music       Sites python    Documents         Library Pictures mallet-2.0.7

- Flags: these are additions to a command that provide the computer with a bit more guidance with what sort of output or manipulation that you want

- Playing around with changing files and directories but for some reason I still don’t understand how to move into files that have two words or more in the title. Tried _ , – , and . .

- Figured out how to do it! to get into files with two or more word titles i just have to use “quotation marks”

- Succeeded in using the -l flag to get more information on the main files and directories

- Adding an h to the -l flag (-lh) commands the computer to display the sizes of the files in a smaller format to make up room

- successfully moved straight to mallet by typing: cd /users/hollispeirce1/mallet-2.0.7

- i also was able to open mallet by typing: open . once i was in mallet and the window opened up

- created a new directory on the desktop called ProgHist-Text by entering the command: mkdir ProgHist-Text

- can now move in and out of it as desired and successfully moved into it using the auto-complete with the tab button remember though auto-complete is case sensitive

- figured out how to read a file on the command line by typing the command: cat name-of-text.txt

- When I hit the up arrow it cycles through the most recent commands and the down arrow goes through the commands in the other direction

- successfully duplicated the file by using the command: cp name-of-text.txt name-of-text2.txt

- and moved it into a smaller one with: cat name-of-text

- to open vim and edit a txt file in terminal enter the command: vim name-of-text.txt

- to man an edit enter the a flag which allows you to edit the text and press escape to go back to reading

- to save anything in vim type : and hit enter then type w and press enter

- to leave vim type : and hit enter then press the q button

- you can also combine these two like all other command BUT WATCH OUT AS YOU CAN QUIT WITHOUT SAVING SO IF YOU DO THIS ENTER wq

- create a back up before moving a file by entering cp file-name.txt file-name-backup.txt

Posting Notes Online

As mentioned in the post “Learning To Share Your Work”, I have learned from Dr Graham that there is a great benefit to posting your finished work online. However, it is also being pointed out in his class now that there is a great benefit to posting your notes online as well. This way you can put your frustrations out there and allow your fellow academics to have the opportunity to help you. Perhaps someone in the community has had similar issues as you and has figured out a solution to that very same problem. I must admit I was a little nervous about posting my finished work online let alone my gibberish notes that I take when working. This is even more nerve-racking as it would seem to me that my notes would only make sense to me.

I must admit though that the concept does seem to make sense. So here goes nothing! These notes are what I wrote down thus far when completing the Programming Historian’s tutorial on how to use the Bash Command Line.

Digital History – Command Line Tutorial

First command worked fine, pwd brought up: /Users/hollispeirce
– Had trouble with the next 1s command
– for some reason it said “command not found”
– No matter what I do to get it to tell me the cd desktop command it says permission denied
– So apparently I was hitting the wrong thing it was “ls” not “1s”
– Learning the hard way that command line only handles one step at a time
– Entered “ls” again and it for some reason gave me a huge list of where i was
– now for some reason my print working directory (pwd) has changed
– Figured out to do absolutely everything separately and it is fairly easy to navigate around
– Following instruction implicitly and being sure to check where I am by typing “ls” to keep track of where I am is important
– Creating new files worked just fine now to try copying files
– A little confused by copying files as it has told me no such file or directory
– seem to have figured it out but not sure how i did it… ASK ABOUT THIS
– if you delete an item in the command line it is gone for good unlike simply moving an item to the trash bin
– deleted a file successfully but now need to look at deleting directories
– for some reason it keeps telling me “-rm: command not found” after typing “-rm -rf anotherdir/”
– am so confused by how to download a developer package.
– installed brew but forgot to press Return to complete the download
– so i tried re entering the download but it keeps saying “400 bad request” so i am reverting back a few steps and figuring out python
– saved python snippet to digital history folder for now as i cannot locate python
– managed to download the most up to date python from
– have successfully created a new directory to save python files into
– and i have successfully saved the snippet inside of it
– Learning thanks to the Bash tutorial what a “flag” is when dealing with the command line
– * flag makes the command line display the directory as a list of text files
– Tried to multiple of files and exclude others with the command: ls *-Scan1.jpeg , Scan2.jpeg , Scan3.jpeg but it failed.
– Am going to try to solve problem by moving commas around
– Not understanding the difference between the basic ls command and adding -1 or also h along with it as for me it just displays the directories in a list without the additional information it is supposed to
– Having trouble moving up and down through my file systems with cd whatever so i will have to investigate this further
– I tried jumping directly to my desired directory or file instead by typing in /users/hollispeirce1$/whatever but Terminal told me the same thing as it did with the other strategy: no such file or directory
– tried using the command: open whatever file . but it stated that that was not a line
– so i also tried another file with a one word title and it worked just fine so it may be that i am not writing the other titles correctly
– tried another file with a one word title and it worked just fine so that is definitely the problem
– using the tab button after writing half of the file name will prompt it to attempt auto complete and by using its subdirectories or files in the current directory
– Managed to download and save War and Peace from the gutenberg project website but for some reason it would not open up when i followed the instructions as directed by the tutorial INVESTIGATE THIS FURTHER
– did not get anywhere because of this with editing a file in the command line because of the above problems

Let me know if any of that makes sense, or if you know how to solve any of my problems!